آموزشگاه زبان بلوار فردوس بزرگترین مرکز آموزش آیلتس در غرب تهران

 

با تیم آموزشی آیلتس دکتر آرین کریمی در آیلتس بدرخشید

 

 

راه های موفقیت در آزمون آیلتس (فصل 1)

 

 

( آیلتس، درهای اقصی نقاط جهان را برای شما باز میکند).

آیلتس یک سیستم بین المللی آزمون انگلیسی است که برای افرادی که می خواهند در کشورهای انگلیسی زبان تحصیل و یا مشغول به کار شوند ، طراحی شده است.

آیلتس توسط 9000 سازمان در سراسر جهان ، از جمله دانشگاهها؛ کارفرمایان؛ نهادهای حرفه ای، مقامات مهاجرت و سایر سازمان های دولتی شناخته و پذیرفته شده است. برای لیستی از سازمان هایی که نمرات آیلتس را می پذیرند، به IELTSssentials.com/whoaccept مراجعه کنید .

 

دسترسی راحت

 

آیلتس در بیشتر از 140 کشور به صورت چهار بار در هر ماه ارائه می شود. این آزمون ها در روزهای شنبه و پنجشنبه برگزار می شوند. برای مشخص کردن تاریخ آزمون در محل سکونت خود، لطفاٌ با نزدیکترین مرکز آزمون آیلتس خود تماس بگیرید. لیستی از محل های آزمون آیلتس IDP در IELTSessentials. Com/testcentres  موجود است.

 

آزمون بین المللی

 

آزمون آیلتس از نظر محتوایی در سطح بین المللی متمرکز شده است. به عنوان مثال، متن ها،تکالیف و وظایفی هستند که از نشریات انگلیسی زبان تمام جهاد تهیه می شوند، طیف وسیعی از لهجه های بومی زبان (آمریکای شمالی، استرالیایی، نیوزیلند و غیره) در آزمون گوش دادن استفاده می شود، تمام استانداردهای انگلیسی در پاسخ کتبی و گفتاری شرکت کنندگان این آزمون پذیرفته می شود.

آزمونی که امتحان شده و قابل اعتماد است.

آیلتس توسط برخی از متخصصان برجسته دنیا برای ارزیابی زبان طراحی شده است و توسط یک برنامه گسترده تحقیق، اعتبارسنجی و توسعه آزمون پشتیبانی می شود.

 

سطح آزمون

 

آیلتس برای ارزیابی مهارت های زبان انگلیسی در طیف گسترده ای از سطوح طراحی شده است. در آیلتس چیزی به نام پاس کردن و یا افتادن وجود ندارد. نتایج به صورت نمره هایی در مقیاس 1(کمترین) تا 9 (بالاترین) گزارش می شود.

 

 

جدول مقیاس نمرات آزمون آیلتس

9  کاربر خبره یا حرفه ای

8  کاربر خیلی خوب

7 کاربر خوب

6  کاربر موثر

5  کاربر متوسط

4  کاربر محدود

3  کاربر خیلی محدود

2  کاربر متناوب یا بی قاعده

1  ناکاربر

0  برای آزمون تلاش نکرده است

 

به کدام آزمون نیاز دارید؟

قبل از ثبت و رزرو آزمون خود، قبل از انجام هر کاری متوجه شوید که آیا به آیلتس آکادمیک یا آموزش عمومی آیلتس نیاز دارید یا خیر؟

آیلتس در دو نسخه قابل دسترسی است. آکادمیک یا تحصیلی و آموزش عمومی. هر سازمانی که آیلتس را بپذیرد به طور معمول مشخص می کند که کدام نسخه از آیلتس را برای برنامه پیش روی خود نیاز دارید. در بعضی موارد ممکن است هر دوی آنها ، هم آکادمیک و هم آموزش عمومی پذیرفته شوند.اگر در انتخاب خود شک دارید، باید با سازمانی که از آن درخواست می کنید تماس بگیرید تا شرایط آن را مورد بررسی قرار دهد.

در هر دو آزمون ، چه آموزش آکادمیک و چه عمومی، شما بر روی هر چهار مهارت زبان ، شنیدار، خواندن، نوشتن، و مکالمه مورد آزمایش قرار می گیرید، مگر اینکه به دلیل معلولیت ،معافیت داشته باشید. همه افراد آزمون های شنیداری و گفتاری یکسانی را پشت سر می گذارند. آزمون های مختلفی از خواندن و نوشتن در آیلتس آکادمیک و آموزش عمومی وجود دارد.

آزمون شنیداری، خواندن و نوشتن باید در همان روز به پایان برسد. ترتیب انجام این آزمون ها ممکن است متفاوت باشد. بین این سه آزمون هیچ وقفه ای وجود ندارد. آزمون صحبت کردن ممکن است حداکثر هفت روز قبل یا بعد از سه آزمون دیگر انجام شود.

مولفه های مکالمه و شنیدار در هر دو شیوه آموزش چه در آکادمیک و چه در آموزش عمومی یکسان و شبیه به هم می باشند.

 

 

 

آموزش عمومی آیلتس

 

 

شنیدار(30 دقیقه)

 

چهار گفتگو و مکالمه ضبط شده

 

 

خواندن(60 دقیقه)

 

بخش اول شامل دو یا سه متن کوتاه واقعی است.

 

بخش دوم شامل دو متن واقعی مرتبط با کار است.

 

بخش سوم شامل یک متن طولانی تر با یک موضوع مورد علاقه عموم.

 

متون برگرفته شده از تذکرات، تبلیغات، کتاب راهنماهای شرکت، اسناد رسمی، کتاب ها و روزنامه می باشد.

 

 

نوشتن(60 دقیقه)

 

تمرین نامه نگاری با حداقل  150 کلمه

 

نوشتن یک متن کوتاه با حداقل 250 کلمه

 

 

مکالمه(11 الی 14 دقیقه)

 

مصاحبه رو در رو بدون ایجاد اختلال و حواس پرتی

 

یک مکالمه شامل سوالات کوتاه، یک مکالمه طولانی مدت، در مورد یک موضوع آشنا و یک بحث ساختار یافته

 

 

 

 

 

 

آیلتس آکادمیک یا تحصیلی

 

 

شنیدار (30 دقیقه)

 

چهار گفتگو و مکالمه ضبط شده

 

 

خواندن(60 دقیقه)

 

خواندن سه متن طولانی به همراه تمارین

 

متون ممکن است شامل نمودارها، طرح های گرافیکی یا تصاویر باشد.

 

متون برگرفته شده از کتاب ها، مجلات، نشریه ها و روزنامه ها می باشند.

 

 

نوشتن(60 دقیقه)

 

در بخش نوشتن حداقل تا 150 کلمه باید انجام شود و در آن آزمون آزمون دهنده باید جدول، نمودار، طرح های گرافیکی،را به طور خلاصه توضیح دهد.

 

نوشتن یک متن کوتاه با حداقل 250کلمه

 

 

مکالمه( 11 الی 14 دقیقه)

 

مصاحبه رو در رو بدون ایجاد اختلال و حواس پرتی

 

یک مکالمه شامل سوالات کوتاه،یک مکالمه طولانی مدت ،در مورد یک موضوع آشنا و یک بحث ساختار یافته

 

 

نمونه جواب رایتینگ آیلتس تسک 2 با نمره 7 در آزمون آیلتس آکادمیک نوشته شده توسط خانم نسیم اچ از دانشجویان دکتر آرین کریمی

 

IELTS Writing Task 2 with Band 7 Answer Model

 

In spite of the advances made in agriculture, many people around the world still go hungry.

Why is this the case? What can be done about this problem?

 

During the past century, we were witness of a significant improvement in the agriculture sector. Modernizing the ways of planting, processing and harvesting, using new fertilizers and pesticides have greatly contributed to increasing the quantity and quality of the agricultural products. However, these technologies have not reached everyone equally. There is still huge number of people in the world who cannot afford to meet their basic nutritional needs. The essay tries to assess the main reasons of this inequality and gives some recommendation to address this challenge.

 

Firstly, it is estimated that millions of people still earn less than one dollar per day and live in extreme poverty. Although significant promotions have been made in manufacturing sufficient food, people in less developed countries still suffer from starvation. In another word, only people in developed countries get benefit from advantages of this modernization. Apart from the unequal access to technologies, mismanagement of the resources is also an important factor leading to inadequate production. For instance, in my hometown, Iran despite having basic infrastructure such as fertile lands, enough sunlight and necessary agricultural equipment, the excessive and unsustainable use of water resources caused many problems for farmers in recent years.

 

Having mentioned the main reasons of endurance of hunger in some parts of the world, some solutions have been introduced by some experts. On the top of them are the ratification of the resolutions on millennium development goals and subsequently sustainable development goals in the United Nations. One of the main goals in the both mentioned documents is the reduction of hunger among the member states especially less developed ones. Hopefully, in 2016 the number of people suffering from the hunger was halved. This shows the firm commitment and the importance of cooperation among the states which brought fruitful results for the world’s population.

 

In a nutshell, hunger will not be an enduring problem in the next years if states especially developed ones fulfill their commitment to transfer necessary technology to the less developed nations and invest in their infrastructure as advised in two aforementioned global agreements.

 

Sample Answer written by One of Dr.Arian Karimi stuents, Mrs. Nasim H

آیلتس کانادا در سال 2018 در تورنتو نمونه سوالات بخشهای مختلف آیلتس

 

General Training IELTS Exam Questions in Toronto, Canada on May 2018


Writing Test



Writing Task 1 (a letter)


Write a thank you letter to your friend about the guidebook he/she gave you for your vacation and say

– Describe your vacation.

– How did you use the guidebook?

– When and where will you return the guidebook to your friend?

 

Writing Task 2 (an essay)

 

Many people believe that parents should teach their children about money matters. What are the best ways to teach a child about money, in your opinion? Give some examples from your own experience.



Speaking Test

Ielts Interview


– What is your full name?

– Can I see your ID?

– Where are you from?

– Do you work or study?

– What do you do?

– Where are you located in the town?

– How far is your place from the test centre?

– What do you think about music?

– What kind of music do you like?

– Do you think the types of music you are listening to are changing?

– Why is it so?

 

Cue Card in Speaking


Describe an event that you have celebrated the most. Please say

 


– What was the event?

– Who did you celebrate it with?

– How did you celebrate it?

 

Discussion in Speaking


– What is the importance of national events and their celebration?

– As a new migrant should a person respect the national events of a country?

– Thinking of an international event such as the Olympics, is it a good platform to share any new ideas or plans regarding national events?

IELTS Class with Dr.Arian Karimi an IELTS Teacher from Iran

 

IELTS test in New Zealand – February 2018 (Academic)

 

Listening Test

 

Section 1. A phone conversation between a staff member and a lady interested in a part-time job as a cycling leader.

Section 2. Map of a zoo.

Section 3. Don’t remember.

Section 4. History of bicycles.

 

Reading Test

 

Passage 1. The history of graphite pencil.

Passage 2. Innovation in sports.

Passage 3. Different theories on the formation of planets.

 

Writing Test

 

Writing task 1 (a report)

 

We were given a pie chart describing the satisfaction level of full-time and part-time students with the services offered by the university library.

 

Writing task 2 (an essay)

 

These days the tradition of families eating meals together is declining. Why is this happening? What are the effects on families?

 

Speaking Test

 

Interview

 

– What is your full name?

– Can I see your ID?

– Where are you from?

– Do you work or study?

– When is your favorite time to study?

 

Cue Card

 

Think of a time when you had to be polite. Please say

 

– Where did this happen?

– How did you do this?

– Why did you have to be polite?

 

Discussion

 

– Should children be allowed to say what’s on their mind or do they need to be controlled by parents?

– What are your thoughts on showing respect as a tourist traveling to a different country?

 

In this tutorial we're going to look at how to describe a pie chart for IELTS academic task 1:

I'm going to give you a variety of expressions to describe pie charts and learn how to say fractions in english because you cannot always use the numbers because it's boring and you've got to show a range of vocabulary to pick up points for lexical resource. So,

 

 fractions in English

 

در این آموزش قصد دارم به نحوه توصیف پای چارت ( Pie Chart ) در تسک 1 رایتینگ آکادمیک در آزمون IELTS نگاه بپردازم.

 

قصد دارم تا شما را با  تعدادی از اصطلاحات برای توصیف پای چارت در آیتلس آشنا کنم چرا که نمیتونید همیشه از در صد و اعداد استفاده کنید چون همه تکراری و کسل کننده میشه هم شما باید دامنه لغات شما را در آیلتس به نمایش بگذارید و به رخ ممتحن آیلتس بکشید تا نمره بیشتری کسب کنید.بنابراین،

 

 

اگر 30٪ باشد، می توانید بگویید: تقریبا یک سوم

 

if it's 30%, you can say: nearly a third

 

 

اگر 52٪ باشد، می توانید بگویید: بیش از نیم بیش از نیمی از پاسخ دهندگان

 

if it's 52%, you can say: over a half e.g. over a half of all respondents

 

 

اگر درصد کمی دارد مثلا 2٪، 3٪، 1٪ شما می توانید بگویید: یک کسر کوچک به عنوان مثال بخش کوچکی از فروش در ویتنام به وجود آمد

 

if it's a small percentage e.g. 2% ,3% ,1% you can say: a small fraction e.g. a small fraction of sales originated in Vietnam

 

 

اگر حدود یک چهارم است، مثلا 24٪، می توانید بگویید: تقریبا یک چهارم از پاسخ دهندگان

 

if it's around a quarter, for example 24%, you can say: roughly a quarter of respondents

 

 

اگر حدود 3/4، 75، 74، 76 یا هرچیزی که می توانید بگوئید، حدود سه چهارم شکست از نیجریه بوده

 

if it's around 3/4 ,75% 74,76 or whatever you can say: around three quarters of Fails from Nigeria

 

 

در کلاس آیلتس دکتر آرین کریمی بصورت آنلاین غیر حضوری یا حضوری شرکت نمایی تا :

 

 

 

1. نکات و اصطلاحات writing آیلتس را به راحتی یاد بگیرید.

 

2. writing آیلتس شما تحصیح و اشتباهاتان برای شما شرح داده شود.

 

3. نکاتی که باعث کم شدن نمره شما در بخش رایتینگ آیلتس میشود به شما گوشزد شود.

 

4. با نکاتی که برای اگزمینر آیلتس مهم است و باعث افزایش نمره در رایتینگ میشود آشنا شوید.

 

 5. یا بگیرید چطور پیوستگی و همبستگی در رایتینگ خود ایجاد کنید.

 

6. چطور به یکپارچکی در رایتینگ آیلتس برسید.

  

7. و از همه مهم تر چطور دل اگزمینر آیلتس را ببرید!

Academic Module of the IELTS exam held in Pakistan on October 2017 and It's Type of Questions

 

Writing Test

 

Writing task 1 (a report)

 

We were given a table showing some information about production and consumption of potatoes in several different countries in 2006. We had to summarise the data.

 

Writing task 2 (an essay)

 

Nowadays more tasks at home and work are being performed by robots. Why do you think it is happening? Is it a negative or positive development?

 

Speaking Test

 

IELTS Interview

 

– What is your full name?

– Can I see your ID?

– Where are you from?

– Do you work or study?

– What subject are you studying?

– What training do you do?

– What will you do further in your field?

– Let’s talk about rain.

– Do you like rain?

– Has it happened to you that you were without an umbrella or raincoat, and it started raining?

– Do you think rain affects people’s mood?

 

IELTS Cue Card

 

Talk about an occasion when you helped someone. Please say

 

– When and where was it?

– What did you do to help?

– How did you feel about it later?

 

IELTS Discussion

 

– Will you help others in the future?

– Do you think people today help each other more or less, compared to the past?

– Do neighbours help each other? Why?

– What are the ways to raise funds from international aid?

– Do you think big fundraising is better than small?

– Why do you think so?

IELTS Writing Couse by Dr.Arian Karimi a Certified IELTS Teacher by UK and Tehran IELTS Expert

 

 

دوره رایتینگ آیلتس با دکتر آرین کریمی متخصص آیلتس با مدرک تدریس آیلتس از انگلستان در تهران سعادت آباد - شهرک غرب

 

 

نمونه جواب Writing آیلتس تسک 2

 

IELTS Writing Task 2 Given Topic

 

As computers are being used more and more in education, there will be soon no role for teachers in the classroom.

 

A Good Writing Model Answer

 

There is no doubt that education and the learning process has changed since the introduction of computers: The search for information has become easier and amusing, and connectivity has expedited the data availability. Though experts systems have made computers more intelligent, they have not yet become a substitute of the human interaction in the learning process. In my opinion what can be expected is a change of the teachers’ role, but not their disappearance from the classroom.

 

Nobody can argue that the acquisition of knowledge is more fun and easier with computers using online classes and materials. The mere activity of touching and exploring this device constitutes an enjoyable task for a child. This, accompanied by the relaxing attitude and software interactivity, usually contributes to a better grasping of new knowledge. At a higher educational level the availability of digital books, simulators and other academic materials provide the student with an ever accessible source of information, that otherwise would not be at hand.

 

But, besides the increasing complexity and behavior of intelligent software, which is usually embedded in the academic digital material, the need for human interaction in the learning process will always be present, at least in the foreseeable future. There is the necessity for a human being to be able to determine what the specifics needs of each individual are. The expertise of a teacher in how to explain and adapt complex concepts to different individuals can hardly be mimicked by a computer, no matter how sophisticated its software is.

 

As computers are becoming a common tool for teaching, teachers should be more aware of their role as guides in the acquisition of knowledge rather than transmitters of facts. They have to be open minded to the changes that are taking places, keep updated and serve as problem solvers in the learning process, thus allowing students to discover the fact for themselves.

 

To summarize, in my personal view, teachers play and will continue to play an important role in the classroom, especially at the primary level. No matter how complex computers become, there will be no replacement for the human interaction, but in the way haw this interaction takes place.

 

Comment by Dr.Arian Karimi

 

This is an excellent essay! Are you a native English speaker? Well done. The only problem is that this essay is too long, 365 words instead of 250-265 maximum.

TOEFL iBT Course by Dr.Arian Karimi the Best Tehran TOEFL Teacher

 

خانه تافل تهران در سعادت آباد برگزار میکند : دوره فشرده تافل iBT

 

تدریس خصوصی رایتینگ و اسپیکینگ تافل دکترآرین کریمی بهترین استاد تافل تهران

 

دوره مجازی و آنلاین تافل آی بی تی

 

 

دوره تک اسکیل تافل دکتر کریمی بهترین راه برای افزایش نمره تافل شماست

 

 

 

 

 

 آموزش نکات نقطه گذاری یا همان پانکچوایشن در رایتینگ آکادمیک  ، آیلتس ، تافل و دیگر آزمونهای نگارش به زبان انگلیسی



Punctuation is the system of signs or symbols given to a reader to show how a sentence is constructed and how it should be read.


Sentences are the building blocks used to construct written accounts. They are complete statements. Punctuation shows how the sentence should be read and makes the meaning clear.
Every sentence should include at least a capital letter at the start, and a full stop, exclamation mark or question mark at the end. This basic system indicates that the sentence is complete.

 

The Basic Signs of Punctuation

 

• the comma ,

• the full stop .

• the exclamation mark !

• the question mark ?

• the semi-colon ;

• the colon :

• the apostrophe '

• quotation marks “ ”

• the hyphen -

• brackets ( ) or [ ]

• the slash /

 

The Comma (,)

 

The comma is useful in a sentence when the writer wishes to:

 

• pause before proceeding

• add a phrase that does not contain any new subject

• separate items on a list

• use more than one adjective (a describing word, like beautiful)

For example, in the following sentence the phrase or clause between the commas gives us more information behind the actions of the boy, the subject of the sentence:

The boy, who knew that his mother was about to arrive, ran quickly towards the opening door.

Note that if the phrase or clause were to be removed, the sentence would still make sense although there would be a loss of information. Alternatively, two sentences could be used:

The boy ran quickly towards the opening door. He knew that his mother was about to arrive.

 

Commas are also used to separate items in a list.

For example:

The shopping trolley was loaded high with bottles of beer, fruit, vegetables, toilet rolls, cereals and cartons of milk.

Note that in a list, the final two items are linked by the word ‘and’ rather than by a comma.


Commas are used to separate adjectives.


For example:

The boy was happy, eager and full of anticipation at the start of his summer holiday.


As commas represent a pause, it is good practice to read your writing out loud and listen to where you make natural pauses as you read it. More often than not, you will indicate where a comma should be placed by a natural pause.

Although, the ‘rules’ of where a comma needs to be placed should also be followed.

For example:

However, it has been suggested that some bees prefer tree pollen.

 

Full Stop (.)

 

A full stop should always be used to end a sentence. The full stop indicates that a point has been made and that you are about to move on to further explanations or a related point.


Less frequently, a series of three full stops (an ellipsis) can be used to indicate where a section of a quotation has been omitted when it is not relevant to the text, for example:

“The boy was happy… at the start of his summer holiday.”

A single full stop may also be used to indicate the abbreviation of commonly used words as in the following examples:

• Telephone Number = Tel. No.

• September = Sept.

• Pages = pp.

 

Exclamation Mark (!)

 

An exclamation mark indicates strong feeling within a sentence, such as fear, anger or love. It is also used to accentuate feeling within the written spoken word.

 

For example:

“Help! I love you!”

In this way, it can also be used to indicate a sharp instruction

• “Stop! Police!”

or to indicate humor

• “Ha! Ha! Ha!”

 

The exclamation mark at the end of a sentence means that you do not need a full stop.

 

Exclamation marks are a poor way of emphasizing what you think are important points in your written assignments; the importance of the point will emphasize itself without a sequence of !!!in the text. An exclamation mark should only be used when absolutely essential, or when taken from a direct quote.


The exclamation mark should be used sparingly in formal and semi-formal writing.

 

Question Mark (?)

 

The question mark simply indicates that a sentence is asking a question. It always comes at the end of a sentence:

 

For example:

Are we at the end?

Note that the question mark also serves as a full stop.

 

Semi-colon (;)

 

The semi-colon is perhaps the most difficult sign of punctuation to use accurately. If in doubt, avoid using it and convert the added material into a new sentence.

 

As a general rule, the semi-colon is used in the following ways:

 

When joining two connected sentences.

 

For example:

We set out at dawn; the weather looked promising.


or

Assertive behavior concerns being able to express feelings, wants and desires appropriately; passive behavior means complying with the wishes of others.

 

The semi-colon can also be used to assemble detailed lists.

 

For example:

 

The conference was attended by delegates from Paris, France; Paris, Texas; London, UK; Stockholm, Sweden; Colombo, Sri Lanka; and Mumbai, India.

 

Colon (:)

 

The colon within a sentence makes a very pointed pause between two phrases. There are two main uses of the colon:

It is most commonly used when listing.


For example:

She placed the following items into the trolley: beer, fruit, vegetables, toilet rolls, cereals and cartons of milk.

Or it can be used within a heading, or descriptive title.

 

For example:

Human Resource Management: Guidelines for Telephone Advisers

 

Apostrophe (’)

 

The apostrophe, sometimes called an inverted comma has two main uses.


The apostrophe indicates possession or ownership.

 

For example:

The girl's hat was green, (girl is in the singular).

This shows the reader that the hat belongs to the girl.

The girls' hats were green, (girls in this instance are plural, i.e. more than one girl, more than one hat).

This indicates that the hats belong to the girls.

Another use of the apostrophe is to indicate where a letter is omitted:

 

For example:

We're going to do this course. (We are going to do this course.)

Isn’t this a fine example of punctuation? (Is not this a fine example of punctuation?)

The time is now 7 o’ clock. (The time is now 7 of the clock)

Note that a common mistake is to confuse its with it’s.

It’s indicates to the reader that a letter has been omitted.

 

For example:

It’s a lovely day is an abbreviated way of saying: It is a lovely day.

Note that in most formal writing, the practice of using abbreviated words is inappropriate.

 

Quotation or Speech Marks (“….”)

 

Quotation or speech marks are used to:


1. To mark out speech

2. When quoting someone else's speech

 

For example:

My grandpa said, "Share your chocolates with your friends."

"George, don't do that!"

"Will you get your books out please?” said Mrs Jones, the teacher, “and quieten down!"

 

It is worth noting that to report an event back does not require speech or quotation marks.

 

For example:

Mrs Jones told the pupils to take out their books and to quieten down.

 

Hyphen (-)

 

The hyphen is used to link words together.

 

For example:

 

• sub-part

• eighteenth-century people

• week-end

• second-class post

• gender-neutral

• non-verbal

 

The hyphen is also used when a word is split between two lines. The hyphen should be placed between syllables at the end of the upper line and indicates to the reader that the word will be completed on the next line.

Computer applications such as Word Processors can be set to automatically hyphenate words for you, although it is more common to use extra spacing to avoid hyphenation.

 

Brackets ( )

 

Brackets always come in pairs ( ) and are used to make an aside, or a point which is not part of the main flow of a sentence. If you remove the words between the brackets, the sentence should still make sense.

 

For example:

 

“The strategy (or strategies) chosen to meet the objectives may need to change as the intervention continues.”

 

Another example is as follows:

 

“We can define class as a large-scale grouping of people who share common economic resources, that strongly influence the types of lifestyle they are able to lead. Ownership of wealth, together with occupation, are the chief basis of class differences. The major classes that exist in Western societies are an upper class (the wealthy, employers and industrialists, plus tops executives – those who own or directly control productive resources); a middle class (which includes most white-collar workers and professionals); and a working class (those in blue-collar or manual jobs).” (Giddens, 1997, p.243)

 

Square Brackets […]

 

A different set of square brackets [ ] can be used:

 

• to abbreviate lengthy quotations

• to correct the tense of a quotation to suit the tense of your own sentence

• to add your own words to sections of an abbreviated quotation.

• to abbreviate lengthy quotations in an essay or report

 

“We can define class as a large-scale grouping of people who share common economic resources, that strongly influence the types of lifestyle they are able to lead. Ownership of wealth, together with occupation, are the chief basis of class differences. The major classes that exist in Western societies are an upper class […]; a middle class […] and a working class […].”
(Giddens, 1997, p.243)

 

To adjust a quotation to suit your own sentence

 

For example, if you were writing about class structure, you might use the following:

According to Giddens, (1997, p.243) the “[o]wnership of wealth, together with occupation, are the chief basis of class differences”.
Note, that when using square brackets, only the occasional letter as in the above example or the occasional word (for example when changing the tense of the sentence) would be placed in square brackets in this way.

 

Slash (/)

 

 

Many people use the slash instead of or, and etc., but this is not always helpful to the reader. There is, however, a modern convention in gender-neutral writing to use ‘s/he’.

 

 

Capital Letters

 

The correct use of capital letters is also important in writing.

 

Capital Letters: A Usage Guide

 

When and how to use capital letters can be a thorny problem. It may be acceptable to drop capital letters when writing casually to friends but if you are writing anything more formal then you need to use capital letters correctly.
This page lists the rules, and provides examples of when to use (and when not to use) capital letters in English writing.

Capital Letters Were Always The Best Way Of Dealing With Things You Didn't Have A Good Answer To

Douglas Adams


When to Use Capital Letters

 

Rule 1:


To Start a Sentence

There are no exceptions to this rule.

This means that, after a full stop, you always use a capital letter.

If the previous sentence ends with a question mark or exclamation mark, you should also use a capital letter, ?and !, like full stops, indicate the end of a sentence. However if in the sentence you have a clause in parenthesis (brackets)

or sequence separated by dashes, and if these end with a question mark or exclamation mark, you should continue with lower case after the second bracket or dash.

Is it always necessary to use capitals to start a sentence? The answer is definitely yes.

She told herself – was it acceptable to talk to oneself? – that the answer was obvious.

The use of a capital after a colon (:) varies depending on whether you are writing in British or US English, just as the spelling of 'capitalisation' and 'capitalization' are different in British and US English.

You should use a capital letter after a colon with US spelling but not with UK spelling.

 

Rule 2: Titles

 

 In titles, capitalize only the important words, not minor words such as ‘and’ and ‘but’.

‘Title Case’, with all the important words capitalized, is rather out of fashion at the moment. Most academic journals and standard referencing systems, for instance, prefer what is known as ‘sentence case’, with a single initial capital.

However, it’s good to understand the rules, in case you are required to use title case at any point.

Using the title of this article as an example:

Sentence case: “When to use capital letters”

Title case: “When to Use Capital Letters”

In title case, in this example, ‘Use’, although small, is an important word in the title, and should therefore be capitalized. ‘To’, however, is not important and therefore not capitalized.

 

Rule 3: For Proper Nouns

 

Proper nouns name something specific, for example, Jane, John, Oxford University, Denver, Qantas, Microsoft, Everest, Sahara. See our pages on Grammar for more information.

Proper nouns (nearly) always start with a capital letter.

There are exceptions to this rule and in marketing sometimes lower-case characters are purposefully used for some proper nouns. Examples include iPhone, eBay and oneworld Alliance. However, in most cases, proper nouns start with

a capital letter.

Caution is needed however, even when you are referring to a specific place or thing. If you use the more general noun rather than the proper noun, this should not be capitalized.

The text 'Historic University town' in this example is incorrect.

The word 'university' should not be capitalized as it is not specific.

The sign should read:

Historic university town

It would also be correct to use:

LAMPETER

Home of Lampeter University

 

Further examples:

 

“I went to the University of Oxford today.”

“I went to Oxford today and had a look at the university.”

Capitalizing is correct in both sentences. In the first the proper noun 'University of Oxford' is used.

In the second sentence, the more general noun ‘university’ is used and so it is not capitalized.

The word 'I' is not a proper noun, it's a pronoun. In English 'I' is always capitalized. In many other languages the equivalent word is not capitalized.

 

Rule 4: Acronyms

  

Acronyms generally work like title case: you capitalize the important words, and not ‘and’, ‘of’, ‘for’ and so on.

The easiest way to work this out is to write out the full title, and then you can see which words don’t need to be capitalized.

To make this clear, here are some examples:

British Broadcasting Corporation BBC

Department for Education DfE

Manchester United Football Club MUFC
United Arab Emirates UAE

Ministry of Transport [test] MoT [test]

Head of Department HoD

World of Warcraft WoW

 

Rule 5: Contractions

  

For contractions, capitalize the initial letters of words, but not subsequent letters within the same word.

Contractions are like acronyms, but also include one or more letters from within the same word. Examples of this include HiFi, which is short for ‘High Fidelity’, and SciFi, short for science fiction.

 

The way to deal with these is to write out the phrase and have a look. Although the words that are abbreviated may not be capitalized, as in ‘science fiction’, the abbreviation always contains capitals for the start of each new word to

make the word boundaries and pronunciation clear. We frequently use SkillsYouNeed, contracting the spaces but making the phrase easier to read.

 

WiFi

 

Many people wrongly assume that WiFi is a contraction of Wireless Fidelity. In fact the word WiFi is an entirely made up word - a marketing invention and does not stand for anything. It is, however, officially written as WiFi.

 

Rule 6: Overusing Capitals is Rude

 

WRITING ENTIRELY IN BLOCK CAPITALS IS SHOUTING, and it’s rude.


We’ve all done it: left the Caps Lock on while typing. But in email etiquette, online chats and/or forum posts, writing in capitals is the online equivalent of shouting. It’s rude, so best not to do it unless you really do want to shout at someone. Even then, consider whether you’d really do it if that person was in front of you, and also whether it will get you anywhere.

 

Although it’s usually best to avoid writing in capitals, it can be useful to write odd words in capitals to give them emphasis. HELP! You're going to LOVE the surprise.

 

It’s also much harder to read block capitals as all the letters are the same height, so you will make your point much more easily if you use lower case.

 

Sometimes, especially when completing a handwritten form, BLOCK CAPITALS are preferred since this can make data entry or automatic computer recognition of handwriting easier and more accurate.

نمونه سوالات آیلتس جنرال در سیدنی استرالیا در ژوئن 2017

 

IELTS test in Sydney, Australia – June 2017 (General Training)

 

IELTS Writing test

 

IELTS Writing task 1 (a letter)

 

You moved to a new place to attend a training course in college. Write a letter to your friend about it and say

 

– When and where did you move?

– Describe the course you are taking.

– Why can it be beneficial to your friend?

 

Writing Task 2 (an essay)

 

Some people prefer to rent, others prefer to buy their own houses these days. Do you think renting has more advantages or disadvantages than owning a house? Support your answer with examples from your personal experience.

 

IELTS Speaking test

 

IELTS Interview

 

– What is your full name?

– Can I see your ID?

– Where are you from?

– Do you work or study?

– What subject are you studying?

– Where do you live now?

– Can you describe your place?

– Would you like to go back to your previous place?

– Let’s talk about dreams.

– Do you think dreams have any relevance to real life?

– Would you like to learn more about dreams?

– Why would you like to do it?

 

IELTS Speaking Cue Card

 

Talk about children you would like to spend more time with. Please say

 

– Who are these kids?

– What would you like to do together?

– Why would you like to spend more time with them?

 

IELTS Discussion

 

Don’t remember.

 

 

نمونه سوالات آیلتس جنرال در سنگاپور در مارچ 2017

 

 

IELTS test in Singapore – March 2017 (General Training)

 

 

IELTS Listening test

 

Section 1. A phone conversation of a man and a camping shop representative about the necessary gear for a camping trip.

Section 2. About application form and membership at a gym.

Section 3. A gym layout description.

Section 4. About issues encountered in an airport and how to address them.

 

IELTS Reading test

 

Don’t remember.

 

IELTS Writing test

 

IELTS Writing task 1 (a letter)

 

You are going on a short holiday soon and would like to invite a friend to join you. Write a letter to him/her and say

 

– Explain why you need a holiday.

– Explain why you want your friend to come.

– Where and when do you want to go?

 

IELTS Writing Task 2 (an essay)

 

Some people think that children should learn to paint or draw at school. Others believe it is just a waste of time. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

 

IELTS Speaking test

 

IELTS Interview

 

– What is your full name?

– Can I see your ID?

– Where are you from?

– Do you work or study?

– Do you live in a house or an apartment?

– What does it look like?

– What can you see from your window?

– What is your favourite colour?

– Did you like this colour as a child?

– What are popular colours among your friends?

– Why is that?

 

IELTS Cue Card

 

Talk about your favourite movie. Please say

 

– What is this movie?

– Where and when did you watch it?

– What is the movie about?

 

IELTS Discussion

 

– Explain why you like the movie.

– What films are popular in your country?

– What films are popular with teenagers and the elderly?

– Why do some people love watching black and white movies?

– Are there any black and white movies screening in your country?

– People spend too much money on making movies, do you think they really need to spend that much to make a good movie?

– Most of the movies have computer-generated graphics, why do you think it is so?

– In the future, do you think computer generated movies will be still popular?

 

 

منابع آیلتس جنرال برگزار شده  در سریلانکا در مارچ 2017

 

IELTS test in Sri Lanka – March 2017 (General Training)

 

 

IELTS Listening test

 

Section 1. A lady complained about fridge malfunction, which was under warranty.

Section 2. A person described his experience of living in an ancient set up (a Stone Age village or similar).

Section 3. Two students talked about energy saving on their campus.

Section 4. About Great Britain’s famous photographers.

 

IELTS Reading test

 

Passage 1. Description of three different types of travel passes, each to suit individual passenger requirements.

Passage 2. About holiday workers for British agricultural farms. Including details of travel insurance, directions, and mobile houses.

Passage 3. Explanation on the job search on BBC website. How to find a region, reference number, contact details and about vacancy alert system.

Passage 4. About an Antarctic expedition to drill the old ice layers to determine whether the global warming is a normal cyclical effect or caused by greenhouse gas emissions.

 

IELTS Writing test

 

IELTS Writing task 1 (a letter)

 

You recently saw an advertisement about helpers for children summer holiday camp. Write a letter to camp organizers and say:

 

– Describe the areas where you can help.

– Give the time period you are available.

– Ask some questions about the camp.

 

IELTS Writing Task 2 (an essay)

 

Nowadays the population of the world is increasing rapidly. New homes and accommodation should be built for this additional population. Some believe that more houses should be constructed in existing towns and cities. Others believe that creating entirely new towns in the countryside to accommodate these houses is the best way. What is your opinion?

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