مزایای کلاس آنلاین زبان ، آیلتس و تافل
شرکت در کلاس آنلاین آیلتس و تافل دکتر آرین کریمی بهترین گزینه برای دانشجویان شهرستانی خارج از کشور
Teaching and Learning Online
Online Learning Environments: Overview
The term online learning (or, as it is sometimes called, distance learning) includes a number of computer-assisted instruction methods. Online teaching and learning is instruction via the Internet. Online instruction includes real-time (synchronous) and anytime, anywhere (asynchronous) interactions.
What is online learning exactally?
Two parallel processes take place in an online environment:
- Students become more active, reflective learners.
- Students and teachers engage in learning through the use of technology and become more familiar with technology by using it.
Online learning is most effective when delivered by teachers experienced in their subject matter. The best way to maintain the connection between online education and the values of traditional education is through ensuring that online learning is “delivered” by teachers, fully qualified and interested in teaching for example IELTS or TOEFL online in a web-based environment.
Approaches to Online Learning
Two approaches to online learning have emerged: synchronous and asynchronous learning.
Synchronous learning is instruction and collaboration in “real time” via the Internet. It typically involves tools, such as:
- live chat
- audio and video conferencing
- data and application sharing
- shared whiteboard
- virtual "hand raising"
- joint viewing of multimedia presentations and online slide shows
Asynchronous learning methods use the time-delayed capabilities of the Internet. It typically involves tools, such as:
- threaded discussion
- newsgroups and bulletin boards
- file attachments
Asynchronous courses are still instructor-facilitated but are not conducted in real time, which means that students and teacher can engage in course-related activities at their convenience rather than during specifically coordinated class sessions. In asynchronous courses, learning does not need to be scheduled in the same way as synchronous learning, allowing students and instructors the benefits of anytime, anywhere learning.
Rather than creating your online course from scratch, a number of software programs are now available that make it easy to develop an online course. These programs include features such as threaded discussions and document sharing and pre-designed design layouts to make the course design process easier. Check with the campus technology specialists to learn more about the preferred software for online learning in your department.
Advantages of Learning Online
Online learning offers a variety of educational opportunities:
The variety of online tools draw on individual learning styles and help students become more versatile learners.
Online group work allows students to become more active participants in the learning process. Contributing input requires that students comprehend what is being discussed, organize their thinking coherently, and express that thinking with carefully constructed language.
Easy access to global resources
Students can easily access online databases and subject experts in the online classroom.
Experiential learning through multimedia presentations
New technologies can be used to engage and motivate students. Technology can also be used to support students in their learning activities.
Accessible for non-traditional students
Online delivery of programs and courses makes participation possible for students who experience geographic and time barriers in gaining access to higher education.
Draws on student interest in online learning
Many students are interested in online learning. In a recent survey conducted by the Office of Academic Planning and Assessment at UMass Amherst, more than 50% of students surveyed said that they were “very interested” or “somewhat interested” in taking an online course.
Advantages of Teaching Online
Teaching online courses can:
Offer the opportunity to think about teaching in new ways
Online teaching can allow you to experiment with techniques only available in online environments, such as threaded discussions and bibliographies.
Provide ideas and techniques to implement in traditional courses
Online email discussions, a frequently-used practice in online learning, can be incorporated into traditional courses to facilitate group work. Other techniques, such as web-based course calendars and sample papers posted on the Internet (with student permission) can easily be incorporated into a traditional course.
Expand the reach of the curriculum
Online teaching can expand existing curriculum to students on a regional, national, and international level.
Teaching online can be an enormously rewarding experience for teachers. Teachers often cite the diversity of students in online courses as one of the most rewarding aspects of teaching online.
Teaching online can offer teachers conveniences not available in traditional classroom settings; for example, at-home office hours and flexible work schedules.
“Faculty involved in [online learning] find themselves acting as a combination of content experts, learning process design experts, process implementation managers, motivators, mentors, and interpreters. In short, technology can leverage faculty time, but it cannot replace human contact without significant quality losses.”
Massy, William. “Distance Education: Guidelines for Good Practice.” AFT, May 2002, p. 16
Challenges of Teaching Online
According to a recent American Federation of Teachers report on distance learning, faculty must be prepared to meet the special requirements of teaching at a distance. Some of the challenges for instructors of teaching online include:
- Familiarity with the online environment
- Capacity to use the medium to its advantage
- Being available to students on an extended basis electronically
- Providing quick responses and feedback to students
Yet, the proponents of online learning argue that these obstacles can be overcome by employing such techniques as the following:
Become familiar with the technology used in your online course
Long before your course starts, become familiar with the technology used in your online course, including hardware and software, and spend some time exploring their options. An online course requires a high level of computing power and reliable telecommunications infrastructure. Make sure you have access to both.
Use the online medium to your advantage
The online environment is essentially a space for written communication. This is both a limitation and a potential of online learning. Written communication can be more time consuming, but “the ability to sit and think as one composes a question or comment also can raise the quality of discussion.” Additionally, shy students who have trouble participating in a classroom discussion often feel more comfortable in an online classroom. Online classrooms can be developed with this fact in mind to take advantage of these considerations.
Keep connected with students
Use the technology of the online environment to help you keep in touch with students. Communicate frequently with students, both individually and as a group. A main part of this handbook focuses on how to connect with students. While keeping connected with students can be a challenge, the online environment offers a number of interesting pedagogical opportunities.
What is an online course?
An online course is offered in part or wholly via the Internet.
Who can teach an online course?
Faculty members as well as graduate students may teach online courses at UMass.
Will an online course echo a course I have already prepared?
It can, but be aware that many changes will be necessary for the course to "work" online. You may find it professionally stimulating to create an entire course anew.
Why would I want to teach an online course?
Do you want to experiment?
Do you want to travel during the semester, have other scheduling complications, or want the convenience of working from home?
Are you interested in reaching students whom you might not otherwise have a chance to teach? These are some of the reasons why instructors choose to teach online.
Where are online courses taught?
Anywhere. Most courses are taught entirely online and students and professors never or only rarely meet face-to-face. Other courses are taught with a strong on-campus component.
When are online courses taught?
UMass has many options for teaching online. Interested teachers can contact their own departments or the Division of Continuing Education.
How do I learn to teach an online course?
The best place to start learning how to teach online is in this handbook. Other places to look for information include your department, online teaching tools such as eCollege or Blackboard, the consultants at Continuing Education, or the instructional technologist at your campus. Also, colleagues who have taught online courses can be an invaluable resource. You can also gain experience with the online learning environment by developing a course homepage for your own classroom-based course.
Following are some common terms used in online courses:
- lurking—reading threaded discussion responses without posting a response. Students who lurk in online courses are like silent students in traditional courses; they listen but do not speak. In online situations where you do not know how many people are “listening,” lurking can be problematic if others do not know you are present.
- threaded discussion—an asynchronous discussion. In threaded discussions students may post responses to a prompt at any time. Threaded discussions allow students to work at their own pace, allow the teacher to respond more thoughtfully since all the responses are not posted simultaneously, and are easier to coordinate than expecting all students to be online at the same time.
- webliography—an online bibliography of web-related resources. Often online teachers will use a web-based bibliography to help students identity appropriate.